Difference between proximate analysis and ultimate analysis

The distinction between proximate and ultimate analysis of coal are as follows :

Proximate analysis Ultimate analysis
Proximate analysis of coal is an assay of the quantity of the coal. The ultimate analysis is the element analysis of the coal.
The various parameter studied are percentages of moisture, volatile matter, ash and fixed carbon. The various parameters studies are percentages of carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, nitrogen, ash and oxygen.
The analysis is cheap and the process is fast. The analysis is comparatively costly and the process is slow.
It is used for classification, the gradation of coal and predicting its industrial use. It is used to find the calorific value of the coal and heat balance sheets.
Hardness Water softening
Pathogenic bacteria. Disinfection

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