Applications of nano-materials

The nano-materials find applications in various fields of-

Medicine

Nanomedicine and diagnostics-

  • Nanogold particles selectively accumulate in tumours, providing precise imaging and targeted laser destruction of a tumour harming healthy cells.
  • Bio-barcode assay is a comparatively cheap method of detecting disease-specific biomarker in the blood, even if its concentration is very less.
  • Nan crystalline silicon carbide ( Sic) is potent materials for artificial heart values due to its low weight, high strength, high strength, extreme hardness, inertness (Sic does not react with biological fluids) and good wear and corrosion resistance.

Drug delivery system

  • Polyethene glycol nanoparticle carrying antibiotics can destroy antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to targeted high does and prolonged release of the drug.
  • The drug-coated nanoparticles can dissolve blood clots by selectively binding to the required regions in the blood vessels.
  • The nanoparticles can greatly reduce the serve side effect of bleeding commonly found in the standard treatment of thrombosis.

Environment

Prevention of air pollution

Nonmaterial’s has large grain boundaries as compared to their grain size. So, they are chemically physically and mechanically very active case. They are used as catalysts to react with toxic gases (CO and NOx) in automatically catalytic converts and power generation to prevent environment pollution due to combustion gasoline and coal.

Nanogold particle embedded in porous manganese oxide acts as catalthe yet to decompose the volatile organic compound Co and Pt-containing nanocatalyst is used to remove NOx from flue gas Conthe diverting Co2 from flue to methanol (powers fuel cell) does not.

Prevention of water pollution
Nano ZnO removes arsenic from water, but bulk ZnO does not
Nano Fe is reported to be useful in the removal of CCl4contamination in groundwater
Graphene oxide with boron can be used to remove oil spills.
AgCl nanowire is used as a photocatalyst to decompose organic mole the clues present in the effluent.
Water filtration
No materials like carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles and dendrimers are used for developing more efficient and cost-efficient and cost-effective processes.
Power consumers of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant can be reduced by using CNT as pores in RO members as water molecules pass through CNT more easily.
Nanostructure filters where CNT or nanocapillary arrays provide the basic for nanofiltration and nonreactive members where functionalized nanoparticles help the filtration process
Electronics
Heat treatment of the stacked graphene plate nanofibers removes the metal catalysts particles and seals the ends of the plate late graphene sheets to form stacked nanochips.
Carbon small size (few nm wide) means billions of transistors could be packed onto a single chip making smaller faster computers and electronics.
CNT transistors
Carbon nanotubes mixed with polymers provide composite materials for using, as in supercapacitors, field devices for flat penal displays and nanometer-sized transistors.
LEDs
Variety of nonmaterial’s are used in lighting technologies (light emitting diodes or LEDs and organic light emitting diodes or OLEDs.

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