The disposal of refuse can be done by various methods, following are the common methods of refuse disposal
- By dumping into the sea
- By incineration
- By sanitary landfilling
- By composting
- By ploughing in fields
- By hog feeding
- By grinding and discharging to sewage
- By salvaging
- By fermentation or biological digestion
Disposal of refuse by dumping into the sea
The disposal of refuse by dumping into sea possible only in case of coastal cities. While dumping the refuse, care is taken to take the refuse in barges, sufficient distance away [15-30] from the beach and dumped there. This practice is necessary to prevent the shores from refuse nuisance, because the sea waves may carry the refuse to the shores and create the nuisance. This method is not satisfactory in rough weather. Because the bees cannot be easily discharged into the sea. The refuse may be washed ashore under tidal conditions.
This method is very costly and hence is not used in India
Disposal of refuse by sanitary landfilling
This is the simple effective and cheap method of refuse disposal. In this method deep trench 3-5m deep and about 6m wide is excavated a filed up with refuse up to of 2-4m now the refuses compacted by means of suitable mechanical vehicles such as rooters or bulldozers and covered with 1-2m. earth. With the time, the earth fill may settle 10-30% of the micro-organisms slowly start the decomposition of the organic matters of refuse and convert them into stable compounds.
Disposal of refuse by incineration
This is the best methods of disposal of combustible refuse. In this method, the combusting refuse is burnt.
All sort of bacteria’s, insects etc, are destroyed and the destroyed and the remaining ashes, metals etc, have little sanitation problems. The produced during the burning of the refuse can be utilized for production of steam and another purpose. High construction and operations costs have limited the wide application of incinerators by the local bodies.
Disposal of refuse by composting
This method of disposal is very similar to landfill, but it yields a stable end product early due to controlled microbial reactions. From the refuse, the decomposed organic matter is separated and composed to produce a stable matter, which is used for reclaiming wasteland or growing crops. The methods of refuse disposal by composition in popular in India and other more populated countries.
Disposal of refuse by ploughing in fields
This is an uncommon method of disposal of refuse on large scale. The refuse of summer camps such as school camps. N.C.C. in the field which is later on ploughed by the farmers.
Disposal of refuse by hog feeding
In this method, the garbage is fed to the animals life hog, swings etc, in western countries and America this method is very common. Garbage is the main element of refuse, which is difficult to handle unsanitary conditions. It is responsible for disease and health hazards. But the saw feeding of garbage to the animals is responsible for diseases of vesicular exanthema in swings and cholera among hogs.
Disposal of refuse by the grinder and discharging to the sewer
This method is not common in India but is used in America and other western countries. In this method, the refuse is well ground in-house or commercial grinders and is discharged in the sewer. This method leaves the problems of disposal of residual refuse 85-90% as unsolved because it is mixed in the sewage. By discharging the garbage into sewers, the B.O.D. and suspended solids are increased by 20-25% and 25-35%respectively.
Disposed of refuse by salvaging
This method is not practised by the local bodies or municipalities. Usually, the labour of salvage dealers collects the paper, metals, glass, rags, plastic cotton pieces etc, from the dustbins \ refuse bins refuse bins-placed along the roads. It proper care is taken to store the salvaged materials pending their utilization, some income can be made out them, as well as helping in the disposer of the refuse.
Disposal of refuse by fermentation or biological digestion
In this method, the garbage is placed in airtight scared tanks, without air for 10 days and them in presence of air for 15-20days. In this method, if required the garbage waste for proper biological digestion. The digested refuse garbage is a table and can be used as soil conditioner.