Mechanical Properties of Material

These Properties are explained as follows –
1) Strength
The ability of a material to resist its failure under the action of load is called as strength of material.

2) Elasticity
The property by virtue of which a material regains it’s shape &size on removal of external load is called elasticity.

3) Stiffness
The resistance of a material due to elastic deformation under the action of external load is called as stiffness.

4) Plasticity
It is the property of a material due to which material undergoes permanent deformation without failure or repair on application of load. In short lack of elasticity is called plasticity.

5) Malleability
It is a property at a material by virtue of which it can be beaten up into thin sheets without cracking when hammered. Lead, brass, copper, silver, aluminum are malleable materials. Gold is the most malleable material.

6) Brittleness
It is the property of material due to which it can be directly broken without any further deformation .In such case, material may fail without any prier warning cast iron ,concrete ,glass, stone ,clay products, bricks are the example of brittle material .
In short lack of ductility is called as brittleness. Brittleness shows the compressive quality of material.

7) Hardness
The ability of material to resist wear scratching, abrasion cutting or indentation (i.e. pen-Brinell, Rockwell and Vicker’s hardness tests are generally performed in laboratory to measure the hardness of a material glass and diamond are harder material.

8) Toughness
The amount of shock energy absorbed by the material before its failure take place is called as toughness.

9) Fatigue
It is the property of material by virtue of which it resists the failure of material under fluctuating or repeated loadings. Machine part like axles ,springs shafts ,connecting rod ,pinion teeth etc. always undergoes vibrations due to repetition of loading .Fatigue is also called as endurance.

10) Creep
The continues deformation of the material which undergoes with time due to application of external steady load called as creep.
For example: Many structural members and machine parts takes steady load for long period of time. Due to these external steady loads, there is a continuous deformation of material with time cause the failure. Creep is a time dependent phenomenon hence creep is mote long period of time.

Mechanical material

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