What are the sources for water supply schemes

The source from which water is available for supply schemes can conveniently be classified into the following two categories according to their proximity to the ground surface.


A well is defined as on artificial hole pit made in the ground for the purpose of supping water in India the chief source of water supply for most of its population is well and it is estimated that 75 to 85 percent of India population depend on well for its water supply. general classification of different types of wells.

Types of wells such as :

Shallow Wells

The shallow wells are constructed in the uppermost layer of earth’s surface. The diameter of shall wells varies from 2 to 6 meters. Looking to the uncertain supply of water the shallow well is used as a source of water supply for small villages, undeveloped municipal towns, isolated, buildings, camps etc.

Deep wells

The deep wells obtained their quota of water in an aquifer below an impervious layer. The theory of deep well is based on the travel of water from an outcrop of the site of the deep well. The outcrop is the place where the aquifer is exposed to the deep well. The water of deep wells is contained in lower embedded aquifers the and hence, I am always available under pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure. The deep wells are therefore referred to as the pressure well

Tube wells

A tube well is a deep well having a diameter of about 50 mm to 200mm and it obtains its quota of water from a number of aquifers. The blind pipes are placed against the impervious layer. The tube wells from the source of water supply schemes for residential colonies, small towns, isolated portions of cities, big gardens, etc.

Artesian wells

The theory of working of an artesian well is based on the principle of hydraulics, namely, that water tends to remain at the same level. The artesian condition develops when the equity is enclosed between two impervious layers. The hydraulic gradient line is above the ground level at the site of an artesian well and hence, when a hole is made in the ground the water comes out with force under pressure. The pumping is usually not required in the beginning for such wells. But later on, when pressure falls down, pumping may become necessary

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