Civil Engineering Archive

Advantages and disadvantages of structural glazing

Advantages Use of glass in construction work adds beauty to the building. Its use fulfills the architectural view for the external decoration and beauty. Using glass in interior of the building saves the space inside the building.

Uses of stones

Broken stones and chips are used for foundation, roofs, and floors of the building and as road metal and railway ballast. Stones blocks are mainly used in walls, foundation, and ornamental facial work. Quartzite is used for

Uses of sand

Sand is used in cement mortar, lime mortar for stone masonry, bricks masonry. Sand is used in plan cement concrete, reinforced cement   concrete, precast concrete, prestressed concrete Coarse sand is used for face plaster on external

What is sand as a construction material

It is a form of silica, which may be siliceous, argillaceous according to the composition. It is formed by decomposition of sandstone due to various weathering effects. Sand obtained from pits, shores, river bed, the seabed is

Types of steel reinforcement

Based on physical and mechanical properties, the following three types reinforcement is mainly used in reinforced concrete construction. Mild steel Mild steel is used structure and non-structure steel in the form of various sections like I-section, channel,

Use of different structural steel sections

Following are the use of different structural steel sections such as : Steel bars Bars are the common form used in building construction. Bars may be round or square in cross-section. Rounds bars Rounds bars are available

Properties of coarse aggregate

There are properties of coarse aggregate such as : It should be clean, dense and cubical in shape. It should be free from silt, clay and coal residues. It should not contain any organic and other admixtures.

Classification of aggregates

Aggregates are classified as Fine aggregate Coarse aggregate Fine aggregate The material which passes through I.S. sieve No.480 [4.75mm] and retained on I.S. sieve No. 5 [0.05mm] is considered as fine aggregate e.g. natural sand, surkhi etc.

Uses of steel

Mild steel is used as distribution steel in R.C.C. members. Mild steel is used as rolled structure section like I section, T section, channel section, angle, plates and square rods in construction work. Plain and corrugated sheets

Properties of good sand

The grains should be sharp, angular and coarse. The sand should be free from clay material and organic matters. The grains should be of durable minerals. It should be free from salts. The gradation of grains size